Words to Know
Having a higher-than-ideal amount of body fat. Obesity is generally determined by a body mass index (BMI) calculation that defines whether and individual is underweight, at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese based on the person's height and weight. A BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered healthy, and a BMI of greater than 30 is considered obese. Experts concluded in 2001 that several cancers are associated with obesity, including postmenopausal breast cancer.
Olaparib is a type of targeted therapy agent called a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor. It is being studied in the treatment of breast cancer, as well as ovarian and cancer caused by mutations (changes) in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. It blocks an enzyme involved in many functions of the cell, including the repair of DNA damage, and it may kill cancer cells. DNA damage may be caused by normal cell actions, UV light, some anticancer agents, as well as radiation used to treat cancer. Also called AZD2281 and PARP inhibitor AZD2281.
Surgery to remove one or both ovaries. Women at high risk for breast cancer are, such as those with the BRCA1 (breast cancer 1) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 2) genes, are sometimes advised to undergo oophorectomy. This surgery can reduce the risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA gene carriers are at a much higher risk for breast and ovarian cancers than the average person.
A lumpectomy to remove a breast tumor is a type of open biopsy. Open biopsy is a procedure in which a surgical incision (cut) is made through the skin to expose and remove tissues. The biopsy tissue is examined under a microscope by a pathologist. An open biopsy may be done in the doctor's office or in the hospital, and may use local anesthesia or general anesthesia.
A system in which medical doctors and other healthcare professionals (such as nurses, pharmacists, and therapists) treat symptoms and diseases using medicines, radiation or surgery. Also called allopathic medicine, biomedicine, conventional medicine, mainstream medicine and Western medicine.
osteonecrosis of the jaw
Also called "dead jaw," jaw necrosis. Painful exposed bone in the jaw. Women who undergo radiation or chemotherapy or who receive steroids as part of breast cancer treatment are at increased risk for this condition. Women who take bisphosphonates may also be at risk for jaw necrosis.
Cancer that forms in tissues of the ovary (one of a pair of female reproductive glands in which the ova, or eggs, are formed). Most ovarian cancers are either ovarian epithelial carcinomas (cancer that begins in the cells on the surface of the ovary) or malignant germ cell tumors (cancer that begins in egg cells).
overall survival rate
Also called survival rate. The percent of people in a study or treatment group who are alive for a certain period of time after they were diagnosed with or treated for a disease, such as breast cancer. The overall survival rate is often stated as a 5-year survival rate, which is the percent of people in a study or treatment group who are alive 5 years after diagnosis or treatment.