Words to Know
Also called peripheral neuropathy. A nerve problem that causes pain, numbness, tingling, swelling, or muscle weakness in different parts of the body. It usually begins in the hands or feet and gets worse over time. Neuropathy may be caused by physical injury, infection, toxic substances, disease (such as cancer, diabetes, kidney failure, or malnutrition), or medicines, including anticancer agents.
A federal agency in the U.S. that conducts biomedical research in its own labs; supports the research of non-Federal scientists in universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the country and abroad; helps in the training of research investigators; and fosters communication of medical information. Access the NIH Web site at http://www.nih.gov. Also called National Institutes of Health.
Also called magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. A procedure in which radio waves and a powerful magnet linked to a computer are used to create detailed pictures of areas inside the body. These pictures can show the difference between healthy and diseased tissue. NMRI makes better images of organs and soft tissue than other scanning techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or X-ray. NMRI is especially useful for imaging the breast tissue, brain, spine, the soft tissue of joints, and the inside of bones.
Breast cancer that stays inside the ducts or the lobules of the breast. An example of a noninvasive breast cancer is ductal carcinoma in situ, a very early type of cancer where breast cancer cells are located in the milk ducts. Because these cells cannot spread at this stage, DCIS is considered noninvasive breast cancer. In some cases, DCIS may become invasive cancer if it is not removed, although doctors are still learning how to predict which DCIS will become invasive. The term 'noninvasive' in general use, in medicine, describes a procedure that does not require inserting an instrument through the skin or into a body opening.