Words to Know
A condition in which the ovaries stop working and menstrual periods stop before the age of 40. Natural menopause usually occurs around age 50. A woman is said to be in menopause when she hasn't had a period for one full year. Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating and infertility. Early menopause can be caused by some breast cancer treatments, surgery to remove the ovaries and certain diseases or genetic conditions. Also called premature menopause, premature ovarian failure and primary ovarian insufficiency.
Also called neurofeedback. A treatment being studied to improve brain function in certain brain disorders and in individuals treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer, who may suffer from chemobrain. Chemobrain is a diminished ability to remember or concentrate, following breast cancer therapy. In EEG biofeedback, sensors are placed on a person's head, which allows brain activity to be shown as patterns on a computer screen. A beep or a tone may be used as a reward to a person for changing certain brain activities. EEG biofeedback may help individuals who are affected with cancer deal with the stress and mental side effects of chemotherapy.
Eklund displacement views
A procedure used to do a mammogram (X-ray of the breasts) in women with breast implants. The implant is pushed back against the chest wall and the breast tissue is pulled forward and around it so the tissue can be seen in the mammogram. Also called Eklund views and implant displacement views.
Requirements that must be met for an individual to be included in a clinical trial. These requirements help make sure that participants are similar to each other in terms of specific factors such as age, type and stage of cancer, general health and previous treatment. When all participants meet the same eligibility criteria, it gives researchers greater confidence that results of the study are caused by the treatment being tested and not by other factors.
Also called hormonal therapy, hormone therapy and hormone treatment. Treatment that adds, blocks or removes hormones. For certain conditions, such as menopause, hormones are given to adjust low hormone levels. To slow or stop the growth of breast cancer, synthetic hormones or other medicines may be given to block the body's natural hormones. Sometimes surgery is needed to remove the gland that makes a certain hormone.
In clinical trials, an event or outcome that can be measured objectively to determine whether the intervention being studied is beneficial. The endpoints of a clinical trial are usually included in the study objectives. Some examples of endpoints are survival, improvements in quality of life, relief of symptoms and disappearance of the tumor.
Also called energy therapy, hands-on-healing or reiki. A form of complementary and alternative medicine based on the belief that a vital energy flows through the human body. The goal of energy healing is to balance the energy flow in the individual. It is used to reduce stress and anxiety and promote well-being. Energy healing is being studied in individuals receiving cancer therapy, to find out if it can improve quality of life, boost the immune system, or reduce side effects.
A medicine used together with other medicines to treat early breast cancer that has spread to lymph nodes. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of breast cancer and with other agents. Epirubicin is a type of anthracycline antibiotic. Also called Ellence and epirubicin hydrochloride.